Measurement and Metrology of ME Branch of B.TECH 5 Sem.
1. Theory of Errors
Introduction, Measurement, Need of Measurement, Generalized Measurement System,Calibration, True Value, MeasuredValue, Error, Accuracy,Precision, Readability, Sensitivity, Repeatability and Reproducibility, Errors in Measurement, Types of errors, Limiting Error (Guarantee Error), Relative (Fractional) Limiting Error111, Combination of Quantities with limiting Errors (Combination of Errors), Types of Uncertainties, External Estimate of Uncertainty UE, Internal Estimate of Uncertainty UI, Propagation of Uncertainties in Compound Quantities, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
2. Linear and Angular Measurement
Introduction, Vernier Caliper, Micrometer, Reading the Micrometer, Sources of Errors in Micrometer, Slip Gauges, Applications of Slip Gauges, Optical Flats, Principle and Working of Optical Flats, Advantages of Optical Flats, Sine Bar, Use of Sine Bar, Sine Center, Bevel Protractor, Universal Bevel Protractor, Application of Bevel Protractor, Autocollimator, Principle of Autocollimator, Working of Autocollimator, Angle Dekkor, Comparators, Mechanical Comparator, Electrical Comparator, Optical Comparator, Pneumatic Comparator, Limit Gauges, Design of Limit Gauges, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
3. Form Measurement
Introduction, Screw Thread Terminology, Screw Thread Measurement, Elements to be Checked, Thread Gauge, Gears, Classification of Gears, Gear Terminology, Gear Error, Parkinson Gear Tester, Review Questions.
4. Surface Finish Measurement
Introduction, Elements of Surface Finishing, Surface Finishing Process, Difference between Lapping and Polishing, Super Finishing, Boring, Cutting Conditions in Boring, Boring Machines, Cutting Tool for Boring, Measurement of Surface Finish, Visual Inspection, Instrument Inspection, Checking Straightness, Method of Straightness Measurement, Flatness Measurement, Methods of Flatness Measurement, Surface Plate, Roundness Measurement, Types of Reference Circles, Precautions while Measuring Roundness of Surfaces, Review Questions.
5. Laser and Advances in Metrology
Introduction, Laser Telemetric System, Laser Principle, Absorption of Radiation, Spontaneous Emission, Stimulated Emission, Difference between Spontaneous Emission and Stimulated Emission, Einstein Relations, Population Inversion, Distance Measuring Instrument, Laser Distance Meter, Laser Inspection, Interferometer, Laser Interference, Theory of Operation, Laser Interferometer Application, Michelson’s Interferometer, Formation of Fringes and Shapes of Fringes, Difference Between Newton’s Ring and Michelson’s Fringes, Applications of Michelson’s Interferometer, The Fabry Perot Interferometer, Review Questions.
6. Machine Tool Metrology
Introduction, Machine Tool Tests, Types of Tool Testing Machines, Equipment Required for Alignment Test, Alignment Tests on Lathe, Alignment Test on Milling Machine, Alignment Test on Pillar Type Drilling Machine, Coordinate Measuring Machine.Types of Coordinate Measuring Machine, Coordinate Measuring Machine Construction, Working Principle of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), Specifications of CMM, Advantage of CNC Operation of CMM, CMM Benefits, Review Questions.
Introduction, Methods of Measurement, Measurement of Force, Direct Methods, Indirect Methods, Torque Measurement, Types of Dynamometers, Torque Measurement using Strain Gauges, Torque Measurement using Torsion Bars, Temperature Measurement, Calibration of Temperature Measuring Devices, Bimetallic Strip, Review Questions.
8. Fluid Flow Measurement
Introduction, Bernoulli’s Equation, Practical Application of Bernoulli’s Equation, Venturi Meter, Orifice Meter, Pitot Tube, Orifice, Fluid Flow Measuring Instrument, Flow Through Nozzles, Rotameter, Thermocouple, Working Principle of Thermocouple, Construction of Thermocouple, Types of Thermocouples, Applications of Thermocouple, Advantages and Disadvantages, Comparison between RTD and Thermocouple, ,Thermistors, Working Principle of Thermistor, Construction of Thermistor, Measurement of Temperature by Thermistor, Applications of Thermistors, Advantages and Disadvantages of Thermistor, Review Questions.